Mobile phone surveillance app Meizu Note 9

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How to remove Android apps from the battery optimization list

Add to Compare. Add to Wishlist. Add To Cart. Meizu 16 Smartphone Blue. See 9 more pictures. For example, as Android was developed initially as a phone OS, hardware such as microphones were required, while over time the phone function became optional. In addition to running on smartphones and tablets, several vendors run Android natively on regular PC hardware with a keyboard and mouse. Android is developed by Google until the latest changes and updates are ready to be released, at which point the source code is made available to the Android Open Source Project AOSP , [] an open source initiative led by Google.

Google announces major incremental upgrades to Android on a yearly basis. The extensive variation of hardware [] in Android devices has caused significant delays for software upgrades and security patches. Each upgrade has had to be specifically tailored, a time- and resource-consuming process. The lack of after-sale support from manufacturers and carriers has been widely criticized by consumer groups and the technology media.

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In , Google began de-coupling certain aspects of the operating system particularly its central applications so they could be updated through the Google Play store independently of the OS. One of those components, Google Play Services , is a closed-source system-level process providing APIs for Google services, installed automatically on nearly all devices running Android 2. With these changes, Google can add new system functions and update apps without having to distribute an upgrade to the operating system itself. HTC 's then-executive Jason Mackenzie called monthly security updates "unrealistic" in , and Google was trying to persuade carriers to exclude security patches from the full testing procedures.

In May , Bloomberg Businessweek reported that Google was making efforts to keep Android more up-to-date, including accelerated rates of security updates, rolling out technological workarounds, reducing requirements for phone testing, and ranking phone makers in an attempt to "shame" them into better behavior.

As stated by Bloomberg : "As smartphones get more capable, complex and hackable, having the latest software work closely with the hardware is increasingly important". Hiroshi Lockheimer, the Android lead, admitted that "It's not an ideal situation", further commenting that the lack of updates is "the weakest link on security on Android". Wireless carriers were described in the report as the "most challenging discussions", due to their slow approval time while testing on their networks, despite some carriers, including Verizon Wireless and Sprint Corporation , already shortening their approval times.

In a further effort for persuasion, Google shared a list of top phone makers measured by updated devices with its Android partners, and is considering making the list public. In May , with the announcement of Android 8. Project Treble separates the vendor implementation device-specific, lower-level software written by silicon manufacturers from the Android OS framework via a new "vendor interface". In Android 7. With Treble, the new stable vendor interface provides access to the hardware-specific parts of Android, enabling device makers to deliver new Android releases simply by updating the Android OS framework, "without any additional work required from the silicon manufacturers.

In September , Google's Project Treble team revealed that, as part of their efforts to improve the security lifecycle of Android devices, Google had managed to get the Linux Foundation to agree to extend the support lifecycle of the Linux Long-Term Support LTS kernel branch from the 2 years that it has historically lasted to 6 years for future versions of the LTS kernel, starting with Linux kernel 4. In May , with the announcement of Android 10 , Google introduced Project Mainline to simplify and expedite delivery of updates to the Android ecosystem. As a result, important security and performance improvements that previously needed to be part of full OS updates can be downloaded and installed as easily as an app update.

Android's kernel is based on the Linux kernel 's long-term support LTS branches. As of [update] , Android uses versions 4. Android's variant of the Linux kernel has further architectural changes that are implemented by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle, such as the inclusion of components like device trees, ashmem, ION, and different out of memory OOM handling. In August , Linus Torvalds said that "eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel, but it will probably not be for four to five years".

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The interfaces are the same but the upstream Linux implementation allows for two different suspend modes: to memory the traditional suspend that Android uses , and to disk hibernate, as it is known on the desktop. However, root access can be obtained by exploiting security flaws in Android, which is used frequently by the open-source community to enhance the capabilities of their devices, but also by malicious parties to install viruses and malware. Android is a Linux distribution according to the Linux Foundation , [] Google's open-source chief Chris DiBona , [] and several journalists.

With the release of Android Oreo in , Google began to require that devices shipped with new SoCs had Linux kernel version 4. Existing devices upgraded to Oreo, and new products launched with older SoCs, were exempt from this rule. On top of the Linux kernel, there are the middleware , libraries and APIs written in C , and application software running on an application framework which includes Java -compatible libraries. Development of the Linux kernel continues independently of Android's other source code projects. Following the trace-based JIT principle, in addition to interpreting the majority of application code, Dalvik performs the compilation and native execution of select frequently executed code segments "traces" each time an application is launched.

Bionic itself has been designed with several major features specific to the Linux kernel. At the same time, Bionic is licensed under the terms of the BSD licence , which Google finds more suitable for the Android's overall licensing model. Android does not have a native X Window System by default, nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries. In current versions of Android, " Toybox ", a collection of command-line utilities mostly for use by apps, as Android does not provide a command-line interface by default , is used since the release of Marshmallow replacing a similar "Toolbox" collection found in previous Android versions.

Android's source code is released by Google under an open source license , and its open nature has encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open-source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which deliver updates to older devices, add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices originally shipped with other operating systems. See List of custom Android distributions.

Historically, device manufacturers and mobile carriers have typically been unsupportive of third-party firmware development. Manufacturers express concern about improper functioning of devices running unofficial software and the support costs resulting from this. As a result, technical obstacles including locked bootloaders and restricted access to root permissions are common in many devices.

However, as community-developed software has grown more popular, and following a statement by the Librarian of Congress in the United States that permits the " jailbreaking " of mobile devices, [] manufacturers and carriers have softened their position regarding third party development, with some, including HTC , [] Motorola , [] Samsung [] [] and Sony , [] providing support and encouraging development.

As a result of this, over time the need to circumvent hardware restrictions to install unofficial firmware has lessened as an increasing number of devices are shipped with unlocked or unlockable bootloaders , similar to Nexus series of phones, although usually requiring that users waive their devices' warranties to do so. Internally, Android identifies each supported device by its device codename , a short string, [] which may or may not be similar to the model name used in marketing the device. For example, the device codename of the Pixel smartphone is sailfish.

The device codename is usually not visible to the end user, but is important for determining compatibility with modified Android versions. It is sometimes also mentioned in articles discussing a device, because it allows to distinguish different hardware variants of a device, even if the manufacturer offers them under the same name. The device codename is available to running applications under android.

They are reportedly able to read almost all smartphone information, including SMS, location, emails, and notes. GCHQ has, according to The Guardian , a wiki -style guide of different apps and advertising networks, and the different data that can be siphoned from each. The documents revealed a further effort by the intelligence agencies to intercept Google Maps searches and queries submitted from Android and other smartphones to collect location information in bulk.

Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks, codenamed Vault 7 and dated from —, detail the capabilities of the Central Intelligence Agency CIA to perform electronic surveillance and cyber warfare , including the ability to compromise the operating systems of most smartphones including Android. Research from security company Trend Micro lists premium service abuse as the most common type of Android malware, where text messages are sent from infected phones to premium-rate telephone numbers without the consent or even knowledge of the user.

Other malware displays unwanted and intrusive advertisements on the device, or sends personal information to unauthorised third parties. In August , Google announced that devices in the Google Nexus series would begin to receive monthly security patches. Google also wrote that "Nexus devices will continue to receive major updates for at least two years and security patches for the longer of three years from initial availability or 18 months from last sale of the device via the Google Store.

Google was starting from scratch with zero percent market share, so it was happy to give up control and give everyone a seat at the table in exchange for adoption. As such, security has become a big issue.


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  5. Key Features.

Android still uses a software update chain-of-command designed back when the Android ecosystem had zero devices to update, and it just doesn't work". And a bunch of broken promises". They also wrote that "About half of devices in use at the end of had not received a platform security update in the previous year", stating that their work would continue to focus on streamlining the security updates program for easier deployment by manufacturers. Patches to bugs found in the core operating system often do not reach users of older and lower-priced devices.

For example, Samsung has worked with General Dynamics through their Open Kernel Labs acquisition to rebuild Jelly Bean on top of their hardened microvisor for the "Knox" project. Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of Wi-Fi access points, encountered as phone users move around, to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points.